In Matthew 12:38 the Pharisees taunt Jesus by asking him to perform a miracle. He responds by saying that the only miracle they will see is the “Sign of Jonah”. Jesus used Jonah’s experience to illustrate how He would be glorified. Likewise there are other parallels between Jesus’ resurrection and Jonah’s experience inside the great fish.
For example, Jonah sacrificed himself for the sake of the sailors (Jonah 1:12) just like Jesus freely offered himself as a sacrifice for our sins. While this is uncharacteristic of Jonah in general, he does show Christ-like grace and compassion for these men who are suffering through a terrifying experience.
Also, the people of Nineveh were able to recognize God’s message when Jonah came into their presence. Conversely, Jesus points out in Matt 12:41 that His generation failed to recognize the Messiah when He was in their presence.